Friday, March 23, 2018

Attaching an Ice Axe to a Pack

This morning I was putting away my rock rack in the garage when I noticed that one of my ice axes was lying on the floor. Both of my children appeared to still be intact and they both were each carrying around their favorite toys (an stuffed horse and a Minecraft Creeper). In other words, there had been no viscous ice axe attacks so that one might have the other's favorite toy...

The mystery was fleeting, but the idea of a blog wasn't. That ice axe lying on the floor reminded me that one question regularly arises when we are getting ready to go into the field: How do I attach my ice axe to my backpack?

Most backpacks have two loops that hang down off the back of the pack. To attach the ice axe, one must slide the shaft down into one of the loops with the pick facing in toward the center of the pack.

In this photo it is possible to see that the ice axe's pick
is facing toward the center. You can see that if the straps that hold it
in place were to fail, the axe would not fall off.

After the axe has been dropped down into the loop, rotate the spike up toward the top of the pack. Usually there is some kind of strap or buckle that can be fastened over the shaft so that the axe stays in place. The Black Diamond pack in the following picture has a special cord with a toggle to hold the axe in place.

A pack with an ice axe properly stowed.

After I took these pictures I found a nice hole in the backyard. It looked a little bit like somebody had been using a hoe to scrape up the grass. I immediately knew better. To me, it looked like an adze had been been at work.

After discovering that, I decided that it would probably be best if two little kids were not playing with an ice axe. There will be time enough for that when they're older...

--Jason D. Martin

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

Non-Event Feedback Loops

Many climbing and ski mountaineering accidents are the result of human error. There are a number of types of human error, but the most disconcerting and common type results from a non-event feedback loop.

--I've been doing it this this way for years and nothing bad has ever happened.

--We skied the slope all day and it was fine. How were we to know that it would slide?

--The boot-track went right under the ice cliff. I just went the way everybody else went.

The thinking process behind non-event feedback is predicated on the following belief: Nothing bad happened last time and nothing bad happened to someone else; therefore, nothing bad will happen this time to me. The psychology of non-event feedback is complex, but its very existence leads to following reality:

The crag that you climb the most, the slope that you ski the most, the mountain that you've been up the most times...these are the most dangerous places that you will ever go.

Non-event feedback takes on a new dimension with group dynamics. A beginner may follow a competent leader up a mountain. The leader may look at the conditions and decide that they're safe. If the leader doesn't go through his entire thinking process, the beginner may then make the assumption that the conditions are always safe.

Avalanche research indicates that the likelihood of skiers tackling a dangerous slope increases dramatically after one person successfully skis the slope first. In other words, once someone sees someone else get away with something, they subconsciously believe that they can get away with it too.

The only way to avoid getting stuck in non-event feedback loops is to constantly question yourself. Is this safe today? Am I just following the leader? And lastly, am I responding to the conditions as they are or as I wish they were?

--Jason D. Martin

Monday, March 19, 2018

Route Profile - Kautz Glacier

With a couple of pitches of steep climbing, an ascent of a broad glacier, and a bivy at the highest camp on Mount Rainier, the Kautz Glacier is thought to be the premier intermediate route on the mountain.

The Kautz Glacier Route
Photo by Mike Riley

In 1857, August Valentine and his party attempted to make the first recorded ascent of Mount Rainier via the Kautz. Unfortunately the party was turned away before they succeeded. The first documented ascent of the mountain would go to Hazard Stevens and Philemon Beecher Van Trump twelve years later in 1870 after they successfully climbed a line to the southeast of the Kautz.

Unconfirmed reports indicate that the Kautz was climbed by seven men and three women in 1913, but little more is known. The Kautz eventually received a documented climb in 1920, when Hans Fuhrer, Heinie Fuhrer, Roger Toll, and Harry Myers summited via the route.

In the early years of guided climbing on Mount Rainier, the Kautz became the standard route to the summit. Over time the line fell out of favor as people migrated toward the easier Disapointment Cleaver route, which is now the standard line of ascent. Unfortunately, this so-called "standard route" on the mountain has become a zoo. Thousands and thousands of climbers ascend the "DC" every year and as a result, the Kautz has reclaimed a bit of its wilderness character.

Climbers skirting crevasses on the Kautz Glacier
Photo by Alasdair Turner

The ascent of the Kautz starts in Paradise. From the parking lot, climbers hike up to Glacier Vista above the Nisqually Glacier. From there you drop down onto the the glacier proper. A short traverse across the lower glacier -- often skirting large crevasses -- brings you to "The Fan," a gully that takes you up off the glacier and onto a ridgeline. The ridge eventually leads to a series of moderate snowfields beneath Camp Hazard, known as "The Turtle." Most climbers will bivy as high as they can on The Turtle for a shorter summit day, often camping as high as 11,000 feet.

While there are established camp sites and blue bag receptical bins at Camp Hazard, most climbers avoid this camp. The Kautz ice cliffs above the camp often shed large seracs and the ice-fall danger in the camp is high.

Climbers descend the Kautz Glacier
Photo by Alasdair Turner

On summit day, most climbers will start very early. The short trek up to Camp Hazard must be done quickly to avoid ice-fall. Once at the camp, climbers drop down to the Kautz Glacier proper. There are two steepish pitches of ice climbing below Camp Hazard. Depending on the way that a climber goes, the difficulty can reach up to 60 degrees.

Above the ice pitches, the angle decreases significantly. The remainder of the climb to the summit requires standard mountaineering skills.

Climbers from around the world come to Rainier because of its beauty and granduer. The Kautz Glacier provides an excellent adventure for those looking for an intermediate level route on one of the most spectacular mountains in the world.

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, March 16, 2018

"Gripped" - The Film

When I first watched this trailer, I fully thought it was a joke. Seriously, I thought some climbers had made this to make fun of climbing movies. Imagine my surprise when I found out that this is a real film with a website and everything...

I'm looking forward to seeing this film!

--Jason D. Martin

Thursday, March 15, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 3/15/18


--A snowmobiler was killed in an avalanche near Park Butte, close to Mt. Baker on Saturday. This marks the 7th avalanche fatality in the Pacific Northwest this season. To read more, click here.

--A snowshoer that went missing on Monday on Mt. Rainier was found dead on Tuesday. To read more, click here.

--The Fremont Brewery in Seattle is sponsoring avalanche awareness course scholarships to 24 women next season. These scholarships will be funded by the Snowpack Ale. So if you're a beer drinker, this is a good investment in women's avalanche education. To read more, click here.


--An elderly woman died after a ski accident at Big Bear Mountain over the weekend. To read more, click here.

--A five-year-old skier lost consciousness while hanging off the side of a chairlift at Bear Mountain Ski Resort. The girl was rescued and will recover fully. To read more, click here.

Desert Southwest:

--The Denver Post is reporting that, "U.S. scientists studying the effects of uranium mining around the Grand Canyon say they are lacking information on whether the radioactive element is hurting plants, animals and a water source for more than 30 million people. And they would not get to fully gather it if President Donald Trump’s 2019 budget proposal is approved." To read more, click here.

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.


--A skier died after hitting a tree in Breckenridge over the weekend. To read more, click here.

--Hesperus Ski Area has suspended operations due to lack of snow. To read more, click here.

Notes from All Over:

--Marc-Andre Leclerc and Ryan Johnson were killed while trying to climb a new line on the Mendenhall Towers in Alaska. The pair were reported missing on Friday. Over the next several days teams searched for the pair before they finally found them. There is no information available yet about what happened. To read more, click here.

--Gripped is reporting that, "Four ice climbers survived an avalanche early Saturday afternoon on the route Kitty Hawk on David Thompson Highway in Alberta. Mounties in Rocky Mountain House were notified of an emergency locator beacon signal coming from an area near the classic WI5 ice route on Mount Elliot on Highway 11 about 50 km southwest of Nordegg and 250 km northwest of Calgary." To read more, click here.

--Deanne Buck just became the second woman to become president of the American Alpine Club. To read more, click here.

--There have been far too many avalanche and tree-well fatalities this year. Gripped addressed this trend in an article last week.

--NPR is reporting that, "Tony Tooke, the head of the U.S. Forest Service, resigned on last week following accusations of sexual harassment." To read more, click here.

--On a related note, the Forest Service is on the hot seat for issues of sexual harassment. This article, by a woman who spent 32-years with the service, takes a deep look at the agency and its culture.

--Imagine a ski that uses smart technology to give you feedback like a coach. It's coming!

Tuesday, March 13, 2018

Route Profile: Skiing the Shuksan Arm

Mt. Shuksan sits above the Mount Baker Ski area, a jagged jewel of rock and ice frosted in snow. The mountain is one of the most photographed mountains in the world, and for good reason. It is an absolutely stunning mountain.

Mt. Shuksan in the Winter

There are several ski tours that one can do out of the Mount Baker Ski Area. Some of them are quite easy, while others are more advanced. Skiing the Shuksan arm is one of the more aggressive ski days. Why? Because you cover quite a bit of ground. But the ground is absolutely awesome.

Here is a short photo essay from that tour:

 Skiers on the Shuksan Arm

A skier dropping down off the arm above Lake Ann 

The snow was literally like butter the day we were up nthere. 

 Okay, I admit it. I'm the one who screwed up the S turns by going straight.

The lower Curtis Glacier above Lake Ann

The American Alpine Institute runs private ski programs in the Cascades, the Sierra and in the San Juans every day throughout the winter. In the Cascades the ski programs run up to July...

--Jason D. Martin

Monday, March 12, 2018

Route Profile: Diedre - 5.7, II+

Between Vancouver, British Columbia and the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort lies one of the best rock climbing playgrounds in North America. Squamish, sometimes referred to as the "Yosemite of the Northwest," is home to hundreds - if not thousands - of spectacular routes, many of them moderate, and most of them easily accessible.

In the early nineties as I learned to climb, I spent a lot of time on the cliffs and crags of Squamish. When I was twenty years old I climbed Diedre (5.7, II+) for the very first time. And at that point in my climbing career, the ascent was life-changing. I had never really done anything longer than two pitches prior to that, and so the completion of a six pitch moderate route was a major achievement.

Diedra was put up in the early sixties on a formation in Squamish called "The Apron." There are a number of moderate routes on The Apron as it is a lower-angled formation. Diedre climbs through some slabs to attain a beautiful corner crack, which you follow for three pitches.

The climbing is never terribly hard, but it is exhilarating. The views of Howe Sound, the Stawamus Chief and nearby Mt. Garabalidi are absolutely stellar.

 AAI Guide and Program Coordinator James Pierson on Pitch 2.

James, approaching the belay station on moderate ground.

AAI Guide Tad McCrea, being a doofus, on moderate ground.

AAI Guide Mike Powers making his way up the fantastic finger crack on pitch 3.
 Another shot of pitch 3.

 James, leading pitch 3.

James, getting after it!

A mother and daughter team following pitch 4. 

 Near the anchors at the top of pitch 4.

 I have climbed Diedre at least twenty times over a timeframe exceeding twenty years. And I never get tired of it. The route seems fresh every time. Writing this today makes me wistful for the route. I can't wait to go back and climb it again...

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, March 9, 2018

Backcountry Skiing: Effective Transitions

Backcountry skiing is one of the most fun mountain adventures out there. But it is gear intensive and there is no more gear intensive moment in a backcountry skiers day than the transition from climbing to skiing or from skiing to climbing.

AMGA Instructor Team Member Jeff Ward and Outdoor Research came together to do a video on this subject. Check it out below:

--Jason D. Martin

Thursday, March 8, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 3/8/18

There were a lot of snow related fatalities over this last week. Yes, some of them were avalanches. But there were also tree-well immersions and a roof slide at a ski resort. Be careful out there. Always be aware of your surroundings and be extremely conservative in new snow conditions...


--It's been a tough couple of weeks in the mountains. The Tacoma New Tribune is reporting that, "The state of Washington averages five avalanche deaths every two years. This year, there have been six avalanche deaths here in just over a week." To read more, click here.

--The Associated Press is reporting that, "Authorities are trying to recover the body of a skier killed in an avalanche in the Methow Valley. Okanogan County Sheriff Frank Rogers says four skiers were caught in the slide Sunday afternoon. The other three were able to locate the fourth using his avalanche beacon, but they couldn't recover his body." To read more, click here.

--Two snowmobilers were killed on Sunday near Esmeralda Peak in Eastern Washington in an avalanche. To read more, click here.

--There were two tree well fatalities at Mt. Bachelor over the weekend. Gear Junkie reports that. "In separate incidents Friday, a 24-year-old Bend, Ore., man and 19-year-old Eugene, Ore., woman fell into 6-foot-deep wells and suffocated. The deaths mark the first tree-well fatalities in 16 years at the resort, with roughly 8 million visits since the last occurrence." To read more, click here.

--MEC and REI are both dropping brands from Vista Outdoors. From the Adventure Journal: "REI announced that is suspending future purchases of brands owned by Vista Outdoor, which manufactures guns and ammunition, including semi-automatic weapons through its Savage Arms brand. Vista owns Bell, Blackburn, BollĂ©, Bushnell, CamelBak, Camp Chef, Giro, and Jimmy Styks, among others. This morning, Canadian retail chain MEC CEO David Labistour said in a statement that effective immediately, MEC will cease ordering any Vista Outdoor products. It will continue to sell inventory in stock until it’s sold out." To read more, click here.

--This is a really nice piece on Whatcom County Search and Rescue and the Bellingham Mountain Rescue Council.

--A nice new wall has been developed right next to the Smoke Bluff Parking Lot in Squamish. To read more about it, click here.


--Two ski resorts suffered in bounds avalanches over the weekend in the Sierra. The first was a controlled slide at Mammoth Mountain, that got out of control. But no one was injured. The second was at Squaw Valley and buried five people, though there were no reported fatalities. The following video is of a snowboarder rescued inside the ski areas boundaries:

--The Reno Gazette Journal reported on two fatalities from a roof avalanche. "A mother and son from San Francisco died Sunday while skiing to a slope-side condominium at Kirkwood Mountain Resort. According to the Alpine County Sheriff’s Office Olga Perkovic, 50, and her son, Aaron Goodstein, 7, died after snow falling from a rooftop buried them." To read more, click here.

--The National Park Service is now taking applications for climbing stewards in Yosemite National Park. To read more, click here.

Desert Southwest:

--An individual was found dead in Red Rock this week. It appears that the person died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound. To read more, click here.

--The desert near Joshua Tree may soon be open to energy development. A number of locals are fighting against this move. To read more, click here.

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.


--The Denver Channel is reporting that, "The sons of former Broncos player Ed McCaffrey are being credited with helping to save the life of a 72-year-old climber who fell in Castle Rock. On Saturday afternoon, Dan Smoker was with his 13-year-old grandson descending the massive rock formation called Castle Rock when the elderly climber slipped and fell." To read more, click here.

--So there's a movie out about a dog on ski patrol in Vail. Check it out, here.

Notes from All Over:

--There was another tree-well fatality at Whitefish Mountain Resort in Montana. To read more, click here.

--Please please please please, don't try this at home!

--Climbing and politics DO converge...especially when it comes to issues of public lands and climate change. I would also argue that gender and racial equality in the outdoors are also important political issues in our chosen sports. Check out Climbing magazine's editorial on this topic.

 Google Earth Image People Believe Shows Spaceship in Antarctica
(click to enlarge)

--So some of the same yahoos who think there are aliens on Mt. Adams think that an alien spacecraft crashed on South Georgia Island in Antarctica. They note the shape of the "craft" and the trail behind it. They don't seem to account for why the crash trail is still there and the "ship" is covered in snow. To me it looks a lot like a serac collapsed off the ice cliff above and slid down the slope. To read more, click here.

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Using Trees and Bushes for Anchors

All types of climbing requires all types of anchors. One commonly used anchor in top-roped climbing as well as in multi-pitch climbing is the ubiquitous tree. Trees and bushes are everywhere. You can find solid trees sticking out of cracks in the middle of a route and you can find weak trees sitting on top of a crag. As a result it is very important to look carefully at a tree before using it.

In traditional anchors, we often use the acronym SERENE to determine whether an anchor is good or not. The letters in SERENE stand for the following:

S -- Solid -- Are all the pieces in the anchor solid?
E -- Equalized -- Are all the pieces equalized?
R -- Redundant -- Is there redundancy throughout the sysytem?
E -- Effective -- Was the anchor construction simple and quick with no fuss?
NE -- No Extension -- Will the system be shock-loaded if a piece blows?

All anchors should pass the SERENE test or come extremely close to passing this test.

When we find a big fat tree that we elect to use as an anchor, the tree generally will not pass this test. Why? Because a single tree is not redundant. However, if the tree is giant and has a good root-base, redundancy doesn't matter as much. All the other letters in the acronym will be satisfied.

The SERENE acronym becomes significantly more important when the tree or bush that you wish to use in your anchor isn't very good. Occasionally, we have to link together a series of shrubs in order to create a SERENE anchor. It's important to use as many as you need to use in order to make the anchor as strong as it needs to be.

Following is a video about what to look for in a good tree anchor:


--Jason D. Martin

Monday, March 5, 2018

Rappelling - The Basics

The American Alpine Club produced a nice piece on rappelling. The following video looks at both considerations and techniques for a successful rappel.

Following is a review of the video:

Counterweight Rappelling vs. Fixed Line Rappelling

This is a standard rappel technique. Both strands of the rope are threaded through a tube style device. The fact that both strands are threaded allows the climber to counterweight herself.

In fixed line rappelling, the rope is tied off and the climber descends a single strand. This can be done with a tube style device or with an assisted braking device.

Why Do Climbers Rappel?

The first reason a climber might rappel is because the climber ascended a multi-pitch route that requires multi-stage rappels. The second reason may be to clean anchors in a single pitch setting. And finally they rappel in emergencies.

Four Key Principles of Rappelling

1) Climbers must be secured during the setup.
2) Climbers must use a backup.
3) Rope ends should be managed and systems should be closed.
4) Avoid entanglements - keep hair and clothes out of devices.

The remainder of the video addresses how these fundamentals are managed by a climber. It also addresses anchor cleaning and fireman's belays.

Rappelling Accidents Happen Because:

1) A climber didn't understand how a rappel worked.
2) A climber didn't double-check everything carefully.
3) A climber didn't have an adequate backup.
4) A climber didn't manage the ends of the rope.

Rappelling can be super dangerous. It's important that you manage your rappels adequately.

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, March 2, 2018

Training and Technique: How to Climb Overhangs

Overhangs are tough. They are one of the great banes of the "weak" climber's existence. But there are ways to get better at attacking these obstacles. Mani the Monkey has put together a great video on how to do it. But he warns that...

There isn't really one single key technique which is going to solve all overhanging problems easily. Rather there's a conglomerate of different techniques and physical capabilities which, when used appropriately, will make climbing overhangs easier. Important techniques are amongst others the Backstep and Hooks, while important physical capabilities are Body Strength/Core and Upper Body Strength.

Check out his video below:

--Jason D. Martin

Thursday, March 1, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 3/1/18


--Two teenage snowshoers were killed by an avalanche near Snoqualmie Pass over the weekend, and a 32-year-old snowmobiler was killed in an avalanche near Stampede Pass. Avalanche conditions in the Pacific Northwest have been severe over the last several days. It is not recommended that people travel in the backcountry when avalanche danger is high. Be sure to check the avalanche forecast before making backcountry trips in the winter.

--A skier died near Kelowna, BC after falling into a tree well on Monday. To read more, click here.

The "Baker Backcountry" from the
Mt. Baker Ski Area

--The Bellingham Herald is reporting that, "A Seattle backcountry expert is lucky to be alive after members of Bellingham Mountain Rescue found him in a remote area of the Mount Baker wilderness Sunday. Dave Drulard, 46, had been missing for 21 hours when he was found about noon Sunday near Barometer Mountain by two members of a Bellingham Mountain Rescue Council search and rescue team who coincidentally were training nearby." To read more, click here.

--The Canadian version of REI, Mountain Equipment Co-op -- or MEC -- is thinking about the National Rifle Association. BikeBiz is reporting that they are discussing, "bike and outdoor brands owned by gun-and-ammo company Vista Outdoor. The brands – such as Giro, Bell and Camelbak – are being boycotted by some consumers thanks to Vista's support of the US National Rifle Association." The article was updated and notes that no decision has yet been made. To read more, click here.

--The Adventure-Journal has more on Vista Outdoor.

Desert Southwest:

--The Sun is reporting that, "Joshua Tree National Park, a place of otherworldly rock formations, unique plants and iridescent wildflowers, smashed yet another attendance record last year in luring twice as many tourists as visited just four years earlier. The popular desert wilderness park drew 2,853,619 visitors in 2017, a jump of nearly 340,000 from the year before, when a record also was set, federal officials said. As recently as 2013, total attendance was about 1.4 million." To read more, click here.

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.


--A skier was killed after hitting a tree at Keystone Ski Resort on Sunday. To read more, click here.

--A 47-year-old snowboarder was killed in the Telluride backcountry over the weekend. It appears that he may have hit a rock in the shallow snowpack while traveling at a high rate of speed. To read more, click here.

--Ski resorts are not doing too well this year. Anthropogenic climate change is having a significant impact and could cost the winter industry one billion dollars. To read more, click here.

Notes from All Over:

--A snowboarder was killed in an avalanche in Alaska on Monday on Dude Mountain near Ketchikan. To read more, click here.

--A Canadian man was killed in a skiing accident at Camelback Mountain in Pennsylvania. To read more, click here.

--A climber suffered a 100-foot fall near Jackson last week. Though he fell 100-feet, the climber will survive. To read more, click here.

--WCAX 3 is reporting that, "New Hampshire Fish and Game says an ice climber was injured when he fell while climbing on Mount Willard in Crawford Notch. Officers and rescue crews responded at about 2:30 p.m. Friday after receiving a report that 64-year-old Tom Boydston, of Center Conway, New Hampshire, had suffered multiple injuries in a fall of about 20 feet." To read more, click here.

--In the Snow is reporting that, "the number of ski areas in China has passed 700 according to the new edition of the China Ski Industry White Book. The 2017 edition of the Annual Report by Chinese ski industry expert Benny Wu puts the total number of ski areas in the country at the end of last year at 703, an increase of 56 on a year previously.  At least 50 more ski areas are reported to be under construction. China’s ski industry is by far the fastest growing in the world, with support right up to china’s president encouraging hundreds of millions of Chinese to try wintersports ahead of the country hosting the 2022 Winter Olympics." To read more, click here.

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

Ice Climbing: Top Managed Anchors

The American Mountain Guides Association has been working together with Petzl and Outdoor Research to provide instructional videos. In this offering, AMGA Instructor Team Member Patrick Ormond demonstrates two systems that are widely used in top-managed ice climbing...

--Jason D. Martin

Monday, February 26, 2018

Backcountry Skiing: Skin Track Corners and Kick-Turns

Kick-turns can be difficult for first time backcountry skiers working their way up hill. There are a lot of variations to the turn, but the goal is always the same: change direction.

The American Mountain Guides Association and Outdoor Research teamed up to make a video on this subject. The following video not only talks about the basics of making a simple wishbone turn, but it also goes into some skills that an advanced skier might employ leading a beginner up the hill.

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, February 23, 2018

Film Review: The Wildest Dream

In 1924, George Mallory and Sandy Irvine made the first ascent of Mount Everest...

Or maybe they didn't...

It's hard to tell whether they made it or not. The pair was last seen alive 800 feet below the summit. Seventy-five years later, Mallory's body was discovered by mountaineer Conrad Anker on an expedition designed to find out what actually happened on the mountain in 1924.

Since that fateful day, the day that took the lives of Mallory and Irvine, whether or not the pair reached the summit of the tallest mountain in the world before their demise is one of the most hotly debated subjects in mountaineering history. There are many details that make one believe that perhaps they did summit. For example, Mallory carried a picture of his beloved wife Ruth which he said he would leave on top of the mountain when he summited. The picture was not found on his body, which could mean that it was left on the summit. But there are also details that make one believe that they might not have summited. For example the Second Step, a named feature on the mountain which now has a ladder on it, would require difficult rock climbing at altitude, something that might not have been possible in the twenties.

The IMAX documentary film, The Wildest Dream, delves deeply into the mystery surrounding the loss of Mallory and Irvine by chronicling the lives of both men as well as the life of modern day mountaineer, Conrad Anker. Anker returns to the mountain with climbing prodigy Leo Houlding, to continue to develop his understanding of the 1924 expedition and to try to surmount the major difficulty that some historians believe may have turned the pair around, the rock climbing required on Second Step.

The Wildest Dream is a fantastic visual journey chocked full of dramatic mountain images and dramatic mountain men. Anker and Mallory are linked through time by a mountain, by a route, and by their commitment to their families. Indeed, the most pertinent moment of the film is when Anker compares his feelings to those that Mallory expressed in his letters. When Mallory was at home with his wife and his family, he was always dreaming of the mountains. When Mallory was in the mountains, he was always dreaming of his wife and family. This is something that most of us in the mountain community can relate to.

The use of IMAX for this film was wise. However, it can make it difficult for those who do not have IMAX screens nearby. Indeed, it may no longer be shown on IMAX and may only be available to most on DVD.  The movie's artistic exploration through imagery is far more decisive and more dramatic than the 1998 IMAX film, Everest about the 1996 Mount Everest tragedy. In part this is because the filmmakers really commit to the format. If they didn't have the footage of a given spot on the mountain, they used high-end computer models, which looked incredibly realistic.

The one downside of the film is that it takes a firm stand on why Mallory chose Irvine as his climbing partner, without presenting the fact that historians see this choice as controversial. In part this is because a fit, acclimitized and experienced climber named Noel Odell was close at hand high on the mountain. Some believe that Mallory may have chosen Irvine as his partner because he was sexually attracted to the younger man. Mallory went through a well-documented period where he flirted with homosexuality. Others believe that he may have done this because he was attracted to the younger man's youth and saw himself in the man. But in the film, they tell us that without question, Mallory chose Irvine to be his companion because of his knowledge of the oxygen apparatus that the men carried. It would have been nice if they had at least alluded to the fact that this choice was considered controversial in such a documentary.

Artistically the use of Mallory and Irvine contrasted with Anker and Houlding works extremely well. As such, The Wildest Dream becomes a film about expeditions in the twenties and expeditions now. It becomes a film about men in the early nineteen-hundreds and men now. It becomes a film about the women who fell in love with these men. And finally it becomes a film about a mountain that has obsessed climbers for nearly a hundred years.

--Jason D. Martin

Thursday, February 22, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 2/22/18


--There are a number of remembrances of Jim Bridwell in the climbing media right now. Here's one from Alpinist. Here's one from Climbing. And here's one from Rock and Ice.

--Here's a review of major rockfall incidents in Yosemite in 2017.

Desert Southwest:

--The Trump Administration's new oil and gas leasing rules are a set-back for climbers. The Access Fund has produced an article about what they and their industry partners are doing to fight the loss of public lands. To read more, click here.

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.

Notes from All Over:

--A skier was killed in an avalanche in the Jackson Hole backcountry over the weekend. To read more, click here.

--A big new climb has been put up in Canada's Ghost River Valley. Ophidiophobia is a 4-pitch M7 WI 4+, and the line is beautiful. To read more, click here.

--The outdoor recreation economy is 2% of the GDP. That is huge. Check it out.

--The Fairbanks Daily-News Miner is reporting that, Denali National Park plans to toughen poop hauling requirements for climbers on the popular West Buttress route up North America’s tallest peak. The rules are based on research that indicates the Kahiltna Glacier is working more like a slow-moving poop conveyer belt and less like a natural toilet than previously believed." To read more, click here.

--Climate change is affecting jobs in mountain towns. To read more, click here.

--Outside magazine is reporting that, recently, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke employed a bait-and-switch defense of President Trump’s bait-and-switch budget proposal for the Department of the Interior. The bait? An $18 billion fund for fixing the National Park Service’s massive maintenance backlog. The switch? It’d be paid for by deregulating oil and gas extraction on public lands, firing NPS employees, and empowering Zinke to sell off any public lands he wishes. Make no mistake, this would be a disaster for America’s national parks, and it probably won’t even fix the damn potholes." To read more, click here.

--Rock and Ice is reporting that, "Grit and Rock—a UK-based organization that promotes female-led climbing expeditions aimed at bagging first ascents—has announced its second-ever slate of recipients of the First Ascent Expedition Award. The award aims 'to encourage female participation in pioneering alpine ascents and to further the understanding and exploration of the unclimbed peaks.'" To read more, click here.

--And finally, here's a nice piece on what it's like to be a Search and Rescue volunteer...

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Rachets for Rescue

As stated in the past, we love Mike Barter's videos. The Canadian guide is currently doing perhaps the best job at creating instructional videos for climbing...and usually they're pretty funny too!

Recently Mike posted a video on ratchets for rescue. One major component of any hauling system in a crevasse or rock rescue scenario is the ratchet. This is essentially the element of the system that allows the rescuer to retain any advantage that he has gained in the rescue.

Mike's video discusses four different types of ratchets:

1) Autoblocking Device:

Examples of autoblocking devices include the Petzel Reverso, the Black Diamond Guide ATC, the Trango GiGi and the B52. Each of these devices allows one to pull rope up through the device, but won't allow the load line to release without a few shenanigans...more on the shenanigans in a different post.

2) Garda Hitch

Also known as the alpine clutch, this quick system is very effective. However, it is extremely important to check that the hitch has been tied properly before using it in a rescue scenario.

3) Self-Minding Prussik

If you have taken a basic course from the American Alpine Institute, you know that we don't usually teach a means to create a self-minding prussik hitch. In the system that we teach, we leave the prussik cord a bit longer so that the rescuer can mind it himself. This is not quite as effective as either having a pulley that is designed to mind the prussik or a tube-style belay device that will operate the same way.

In the video, Mike also quickly demonstrates a way to make this prussik load-releasable by adding a munter-mule into the shelf. A load-releasable system is desirable in all rescue applications.

4) GriGri

The Petzl GriGri and the Trango Cinch are both highly underutilized tools for rescue. In part, it's because they are heavy, so a lot of climbers don't take them on long routes or into the alpine, but they are very effective. They work as both a pulley and a ratchet simultaneously and are -- by their very nature -- load releasable.

It is imperative that anyone going into the mountains has a rudimentary understanding of ratcheting in rescue. If you haven't had the opportunity to take a class, it might be very valuable to watch this video a few times over and to practice each of the skills shown...

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, February 16, 2018

Leading with Beginners

The proceeding information is a mildly edited excerpt from Rock Climbing: The AMGA Single Pitch Manual, by Bob Gaines and Jason D. Martin.

It is not uncommon for an individual to take a friend climbing who has a limited climbing background. Many crags require one to lead in order to set-up the rope. This creates a potentially dangerous situation for the experienced person, since the newbie may not have the appropriate experience to belay a leader.

Lead Belay Training

If you take a beginner to a venue that requires a lead in order to access the anchors, it is important to teach the beginner how to lead belay in the lesson. Once the PBUS technique has been taught and the student demonstrates proficiency, then you may move into a lesson on lead belaying.

The orientation of the beginner’s hands while belaying a leader should reflect the posture taken in the break position of the PBUS. The student will pay out rope with a guide hand above the device, while the brake-hand remains in the same position below the device. If the beginner needs to bring rope back in, they simply revert back to the PBUS toproping technique.

To practice the lead belay, it is best to place a piece ten feet or so up, then run the rope through it. You can practice paying out rope and "taking falls" prior to actually getting onto the sharp end of the rope.

Lead Belay with an Assisted Breaking Device

There are guides who prefer to have students belay them with an assisted braking device. The advantage to these devices is that they reduce the likelihood of a catastrophic failure of the system. The problem with them is they are far from foolproof and require specialized instruction and technique.

There are a number of devices on the market and they all have their own idiosyncrasies. It’s important to read all associated instructions before using a new device, follow the manufacturer’s recommendations, heed the manufacturer’s warnings, and practice with it prior to using in an institutional setting.

The Petzl GriGri is one of the more common devices on the market. As a result, lead belay technique with this device is demonstrated in the following video. This video shows both the "old style" of lead belaying, as well as the "new style."

Belaying a Leader with a GriGri - The "New Style"

The primary belaying position for the GriGri is the PBUS position, with a guide hand above the device on the rope and a brake-hand below. As a leader moves up the rock, the belayer slowly feeds rope through the device, gently pulling with the guide hand, while pushing rope through with the brake-hand. If the rope is fed at an appropriate speed, the cam in the GriGri will not engage.

In this principal belay position, the belayer’s brake-hand never leaves the rope. If there is a need to bring in slack, the belayer reverts to the PBUS technique.

AAI Guide Richard Riquelme belaying a leader using the principal belay position for a Grigri.

Because the cam automatically engages with a sudden acceleration of the rope, it can be difficult to pay out slack quickly. The simplest solution to this problem is to never allow the rope to suddenly accelerate. This may accomplished by the leader placing gear at chest level or lower and extending the protection with runners. Doing so allows the leader to clip into the protection without having to give a quick tug on the rope.

If the goal is to teach a student the finer points of lead belaying, then there are two ways to give slack to a climber who needs it quickly. The first and easiest way is to simply step in toward the wall. This will immediately put slack into the system and works well. However, this technique is not recommended for novice belayers.

The second way is to shift the brake-hand, sliding it up the rope to the device, bracing the index finger against the lip of the moving sideplate. Press the thumb of the brake-hand down on the cam where the handle is attached while continuing to hold the brake-strand of the rope. Pull slack with the guide-hand. Once finished, immediately return to the principal belay position.

The proper way to give slack quickly with a Petzl Grigri.

Petzl recommends that you:

1) Always keep the brake-strand in the brake hand. There is never a valid reason to let go of the brake-strand.

2) Never grip the device with the entire hand.

3) Anticipate the climber’s movement, including when additional rope is needed to make the clip.

In a toprope setting, a rope is generally set-up early in the day and may be used to practice belaying. In a lead setting, practicing this skill requires some creativity. One method is to clip the first bolt of a sport route, or to place a piece of gear about ten-feet up. Clip the rope and then have the student practice belaying a leader on this short mock set-up.

Student Belay Backups, Ground Anchors and Knots

In addition to using an assisted breaking device and placing a lot of protection, here are three other ways to increase instructor security during a lead. First, use a ground anchor. Second, employ a backup belayer. And third, tie knots in the rope behind the belayer and the backup belayer.

A ground anchor keeps the belayer under control. The belayer is fixed to a given spot. If the belayer is anchored, the opportunity to trip, fall over, and pull the instructor off is greatly reduced. They will remain in the designated stance.

With two or more beginners, a backup belayer will increase security. It is far less likely that both students will drop the leader. To add even greater security, put a friction hitch on the rope behind the belayer and attach to the backup belayer’s belay loop. Rather than being dependent on a hand belay, the backup belayer manages the rope with the assistance of a third hand.

Some instructors tie knots in the rope behind the belayer and the back-up belayer. As the instructor leads and the knots approach the belay team, either the backup belayer or, ideally, a third student unties them. Even if there are a series of mistakes, the leader will still have a reasonable margin of error.

No matter what steps are taken to increase your security, it remains important to regularly look down and check on the belayer. Make sure that the belay system is employed appropriately and communicate error corrections as needed.

Descent Options

If walking off or down climbing is not possible, the other descent options from the top of a route are either to rappel or lower.

The most secure method is to rappel. When being lowered the instructor is completely reliant on the belay system and at the greatest exposure to risk of system failure. If there are any doubts about the security of the system (i.e. the belayer,) rappel.

Jim Belanger lowers clipped to a friction hitch on the belay strand of the rope.

However, if your goal is to teach the beginner how to operate as an independent climber, then the he will have to learn how to lower. When faced with that situation a technique that can be used to help mitigate the risk is for you to back yourself up by placing a friction-hitch on the belay strand of the rope, clipping the friction hitch to a sling that is then clipped into the instructor’s belay loop with a locking carabiner. While being lowered, you manage the friction hitch, releasing it if the belayer loses control of the brake strand.

Leading is fun, but getting dropped isn't. Put in as much time as you need in belay training before getting onto the sharp end with a new leader...

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 2/15/18


--A climber on Mt. Hood suffered a 100-foot fall on Tuesday. Nearby parties performed CPR on the climber, but he was pronounced dead at a nearby hospital after being airlifted off the peak. To read more, click here.

--A new three-pitch WI 3 climb was completed in Squamish last week. Check it out!


--The iconic rock climber, Jim Bridwell, has passed away. There have been reports for weeks about "The Bird's" deteriorating condition. News of his death on Monday is just starting to trickle onto the internet. We will link profiles about his life to our news blog next week.

--Squaw Valley has installed batteries developed by Tesla to decrease it's greenhouse gas output. To read more, click here.

Desert Southwest:

--The Mercury News and many others are reporting that, "Three people died and four were rushed to a Nevada hospital with life-threatening injuries after a tour helicopter crashed into a section of the Grand Canyon on Saturday evening. The incident occurred around 5:20 p.m. on the land of the Hualapai Nation near Quartermaster Canyon, Hualapai Nation Police Chief Francis Bradley told the Associated Press." To read more, click here.

--The Desert Sun is reporting that, "The California desert is the latest target of Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke's campaign to promote resource extraction on public lands across the West. Zinke's Interior Department said this week it would allow mining on 1.3 million acres, or more than 2,000 square miles, across the California desert, reversing an Obama-era effort to protect those lands. Vast swaths of Utah's Bears Ears and Grand Staircase-Escalante national monuments were similarly opened to mining this month, following President Trump's decision to dramatically reduce the size of those monuments." To read more, click here.

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.

Notes from All Over:

--Wisconsin's Journal Sentinel is reporting that, "Authorities have identified the 37-year-old Waukesha man who died as the result of a skiing accident on Saturday, Feb. 3, in Dane County. Jonathan Allen was skiing at the Tyrol Basin Ski and Snowboard Area north of Mt. Horeb when he struck a tree 'at a high rate of speed,' according to a Monday morning news release issued by the Dane County Sheriff's Department." To read more, click here.

--Outside magazine has some ideas about Leave No Trace. This series of ethics could use some updating to deal with a few 21st century LNT problems. To read more, click here.

--The Salt Lake Tribune is reporting that, "President Donald Trump’s spending plan proposes an $18 billion fund to help rebuild national parks and wildlife refuges and boost the Native American education system but also would deliver a severe cut to the Interior Department’s overall budget and add new authority to sell off some public lands." To read more, click here.

--Ponzi schemes are not just a New York phenomenon. Ariel Quiros, the owner of Vermont's Jay Peak Ski Resort, built such a scheme by swindling money out of foreign investors through a program meant to provide them US residence for making investments in the United States. To read more, click here.

--And finally, the organizers of the Olympics won't let skiing robots enter the events...yet. So, a few engineers decided to run their own robot ski Olympics. Check it out, below:

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

The Magic of Plastic Bins

Among all the different ways you can organize your gear, there’s one important staple you should always keep in mind: the plastic bin. While it may seem like a small thing, it’s a mighty tool for mobilizing for adventures big or small, spontaneous or planned.

I like to keep bins organized by season and or activity. Right now, I have a general camping bin, a climbing bin and a skiing bin. This weekend, I’m going up to Tahoe and packing is as easy as throwing a duffel with some town clothes, the ski bin and my skis, boots and poles in the car.

My ski bin includes items for backcountry and resort like:
  • Skins
  • Avalanche beacon
  • Shovel
  • Probe
  • Helmet
  • Sunglasses
  • Ski goggles
  • Sunscreen
  • Bibs or snow pants
  • Insulated resort ski jacket
  • Softshell jacket
  • Hardshell
  • Medium gloves
  • Heavyweight gloves
  • Mittens
  • Small backpack and water bladder
For my climbing bin, I keep:
  • Padded climbing harness
  • Ultralight alpine harness
  • Climbing helmet
  • Black diamond camalots small to large
  • Nuts
  • Sport quickdraws
  • Alpine quickdraws
  • Cordelette
  • Grigri
  • ATC
  • Assortment of locking and non-locking carabiners
  • Assortment of slings
  • Rocket pack
My camping bin includes:
  • Whisperlite stove
  • Refillable fuel bottle and pump
  • MSR Reactor stove
  • Fuel canisters 
  • Lighters
  • Headlamp
  • Spork
  • Mug
  • Repair kit
  • Inflatable Thermarest mattress
  • First-aid kit
  • SPOT emergency locator beacon
  • GPS
  • SteriPEN

With this kind of system — be it seasonal or activity-based — makes it so much easier to get out in the mountains whatever your schedule is. If you’re a busy guide, you always know where your stuff is and it’s easy to find in the correct bin. If you’re a weekend warrior, you can load up the car on Friday with your bin and whatever else you need and head out. I recommend it as a simple and efficient way to organize your gear.

--Shelby Carpenter, AAI Instructor and Guide Alumna

Monday, February 12, 2018

No Shortcuts - Ski Training Video

It takes a tremendous amount of dedication to become one of the top big mountain skiers in the world. Pro skier Dane Tudor is at the top of his game. The following video shows what it takes to get there...

I think that there's something to be said about the name "no shortcuts." The reality for every mountain athlete is that they have to work incredibly hard to get to where they are. There really are no shortcuts to being as good as you can be...

--Jason D. Martin

Friday, February 9, 2018

Avalanche Problems Explained

The National Avalanche Center has put together an excellent educational resource on how to read an avalanche forecast. This is a really good video and even if you feel well-versed in avalanche education, it's worth the five minutes it will take to watch it...

--Jason D. Martin

Thursday, February 8, 2018

Climbing and Outdoor News from Here and Abroad - 2/8/18


--Jim Herrington will be in Bellingham on Friday (February 9, 7pm) at Village Books presenting on his new book, The ClimbersThe Climbers is a photo essay of some of the most well-known climbers in the world. But it is not about those who are trendsetters today, but instead about the aged mountaineers who made first ascents throughout the world in the last century. The Climbers won the Grand Prize at the Banff Mountain Book Awards. To read more, click here.

--The Seattle Times is reporting that, "The National Park Service has chosen Palmer “Chip” Jenkins, Jr., to be the next superintendent at Mount Rainier National Park. The park service says Jenkins will start in his new role in mid-March, replacing Randy King who retired in January." To read more, click here.

--It's not a good idea to ski in an area being controlled for avalanches. The Revelstoke Mountaineer in Canada writes that, "Skiers and snowboarders who head into the Rogers Pass backcountry without complying with the Winter Permit System aren’t just jeopardizing access to one of North America’s most iconic ski touring areas, but an avalanche control program that’s protecting the lives of thousands of people every day." To read more, click here.


--Gripped is reporting that, "Sender Films has announced that The Dawn Wall movie will premiere at the South by Southwest Festival this year. There will be a full theatrical release later in the season." To read more, click here.

Desert Southwest:

--A climber was injured in Red Rock Canyon's Ice Box Canyon over the weekend. There is limited information about the situation. To read more, click here.

--Alex Honnold lives in Vegas...! And so do a ton of other high-end climbers. Check it out!

--The annual Red Rock Rendezvous is slated to take place in Las Vegas from March 16-19, 2018. This is one of the biggest climbing festivals in the country...and one of the most fun. The American Alpine Institute works with Mountain Gear to put on the festival every year and many AAI guides will be on hand for both instruction, as well as for hanging out at the evening parties. You might also consider booking a guide before or after the program, or even participating in an additional climbing class. To read more, click here.

--News Channel 3 is reporting that, "It has been years in the making, and finally, a new shuttle bus is in service at Joshua Tree National Park. Beginning Feb. 1, the RoadRunner shuttle will take visitors to several designated stops in and around the park. The shuttles will leave every two hours from the Joshua Tree and Oasis Visitor Centers." To read more, click here.


--Westworld is reporting that, "According to a just-released final report from the Colorado Avalanche Information Center (CAIC), 27-year-old Durango resident Abel Palmer did almost everything right on January 21, when he and a companion chose to partake in some backcountry skiing between Red Mountain Pass and the Town of Silverton, in an area known to locals as Sam's Trees. But one small mistake, during which he accidentally entered an area he hadn't planned to enter, led to him becoming the first person in Colorado to die in an avalanche during 2018." To read more, click here.

Notes from All Over:

--Ted Johnson, the man behind the creation of Utah's Snowbird resort, died last week. Johnson was hit by a drunk driver while he was crossing the street in a crosswalk. To read more, click here.

--A 74-year-old ice climber was killed in a fall in Montana on Sunday. Little is known about the nature of the accident. To read more, click here.

--Rock and Ice is reporting that, "The North Carolina climbing and conservation communities lost a giant when John Myers passed away February 3, due to ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease)." To read more, click here.

--Outside is reporting that the new leader of the national parks is bad news. "There’s a new acting director for the National Park Service, and he has an interesting past. Most notably, P. Daniel Smith made headlines for the time he helped the owner of the Washington Redskins cut down trees on federally owned, protected land to lend the billionaire a better view." To read more, click here.

Denali's name is contentious in Ohio. But who cares?
The mountain is not in Ohio...

--Though Native Americans, climbers and Alaskans all call Denali, Denali, and William McKinnley never even saw the mountain, there is still a push from some to change the official name back to Mt. McKinley. The Hill is reporting that, "GOP lawmakers from Ohio are pressing President Trump to uphold a promise to reverse former President Obama's decision and rename the Alaskan mountain Denali to its old name, Mt. McKinley. In a letter to Trump, the 11 lawmakers say it was "disrespectful" for Obama to change the name of the mountain, which had been named after William McKinley, a former president from Ohio. The mountain was named after the 25th president in 1896." To read more, click here.

--A production company is looking for a couple of female climbers to be stunt doubles for actresses. To read more, click here.

Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Ski the World - Candide Thovex: Quattro 2

Candide Thovex has created a unique and awesome vision of a skier, skiing everywhere. I don't mean on all kinds of snow, I literally mean everywhere.

Check out this spectacular video of a skier, "skiing the world..."

"All conditions are perfect conditions." Words to live by...

--Jason D. Martin

Monday, February 5, 2018

The Dangers of Collapse on an Ice Climb

In 1994, I had a very close call.

My friends and I were gearing up at the base of Shannon Falls (WI2+, II) in Squamish. The route wasn't really in. There was ice and it looked like there was a line, but that particular flow is high volume and it takes quite a lot for it to freeze. A tremendous amount of water was running behind the ice and the walls on either side of the climb were plastered in frozen spray.

But we were young and dumb and thought for sure that we could make it go...

We were gearing up at the base when something cracked up high. It sounded like a gunshot, and then like a tree falling through the forest. But it wasn't a tree, and it wasn't a was something bigger, and perhaps more dangerous. A block of ice the size of a minivan ripped off the semi-frozen falls and dropped toward us like a bomb.

The four of us scattered, getting away from the base of the falls just in time. The falling ice exploded on the ground, shooting basketball-sized blocks in every direction, zipping past us like missiles.

At the end of the day, we had a couple of bumps and bruises, but no one was truly injured.

It took a week to recover. And it took a week for the climb to finish freezing. So just seven days later, we found ourselves once again at the base of Shannon Falls. This time though, we sent the line.

For a long time, I was quite proud of that climb. It was technically easy, but the experience a week prior had left an indelible mark on me. The entire time we were on the route, I was convinced it was going to collapse...and I simply didn't have the judgement or experience to adequately assess the strength of the climb. Getting to the top, uninjured and happy, seemed like a great accomplishment.

But that's not how a climb should go. The baseline of success shouldn't be staying alive. Instead, it should be having a good time with our friends, while pushing ourselves in a controlled manner. One is not in control when they get on an ice climb that appears to be coming apart.

Ice climbs can and do collapse. If there is water running behind a climb -- especially if there's a lot of water -- it's time to go home. If it's so cold that the entire climb is brittle, then it's time to go home. It it's really warm out, and has been warm for a few days, it's time to go home. And if you just don't feel it, it's time to go home.

That's what should have happened in the following video. Whiteman Falls is a classic 2-pitch climb found in Kananaskies Country near Calgary. In the video, the climbers work up the line as you can hear water running behind, and then a large part of the climb collapses.

The video shows the incident from two perspectives. First, it shows it from the perspective of the climber, and then second, of the belayer. It gives you a really good feel for what it would be like to be near a climb as it collapses.

There is one thing that I thought this party did well. The belayer is perched in a place where he is secure from falling ice. One could make a very strong argument that this is how a belayer should be placed in all ice climbing situations.

Ice climbing is super fun, but it can also be dangerous. Learning how to protect both a leader and a follower from falling ice is a skill that takes time and experience to develop...

--Jason D. Martin